The Magic of Dither

(I have written an article for Australian HI-FI suggesting that a good way to start to understand the differences between 16 and 24 bit audio is to listen to the differences between 8 bit and 16 bit audio. To that end I will in the future be posting I have posted four versions of a musical excerpt here. In the meantime, I want to explore a weirdness that my experiments revealed, and explain why it happened.)

Let’s create a sine wave of 980 hertz with a sampling rate of 44.1kHz and 16 bits of resolution. Let this sine wave be of an extremely low level, with a peak of -80dB. Here’s its spectrogram:

980 hertz, -80dB, 16 bits

(This was generated with a small amount of dither, which is why it has a noise floor at -138dB and is unaccompanied by the nasty harmonics that would normally be present with a sine wave that is sketched out in values of +3 to -3). Note that the spike reaches -80dB.

Now let’s downsample it to 8 bits, accompanied by some dither noise:

980Hz - 8 bits - unshaped dither

Note the very high level of the noise, to the point that the 980 hertz signal barely peeks out over the top. This signal’s spike reaches -80dB, just as it did before it was downconverted.

So let’s go back to the 16 bit original and downsample it again to 8 bits, this time with some aggressive noise shaping:

980z - 8 bits - shaped dither E2

That’s better. The 980 hertz signal stands well out from the signal, and if you turn the whole thing up it is clearly audible. It, once again, reaches -80dB.

Now what I’ve been leading up to:  again we return to the 16 bit original, and again we downsample to 8 bits. But this time there’s no dither, no added low level noise. Instead we simply divide the 16 bit value of each sample by 8, and map it onto the nearest 8 bit integer value. Here’s the spectrum:

980Hz - 8 bits - no dither

Lots of harmonics, quite a bit of noise (although a lower level than with the plain dithering) and something that’s distinctly odd. Instead of the 980 hertz spike reaching -80dB, it makes it up to -48dB. How could reducing its precision from 16 bits to 8 bits have caused that?

Well, here’s the thing: -80dB is lower than minimum value definable in an 8 bit signal. The lowest quantisation level is -48dB. So the only way this wave form can be represented is by toggling between values for zero and one. Let’s zoom in on the wave form:

980Hz - 8 bits - no dither wave form

As you can see, our sine wave has become a kind of square wave, which explains all those harmonics. But it also explains why the fundamental is way too powerful. A sample value of ‘1’ is -48dB on an 8 bit scale, so that’s what our signal becomes.

Which is why dither is so vitally important, at least with 8 bit audio.

Here are the four test signals with the low level 980 hertz sine wave:

Download them and listen. You’ll have to turn up the volume quite a way to hear the 980 hertz tone.

And here are the four excerpts of the music from the group B’Jezus referred to in the article:

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One Response to The Magic of Dither

  1. That’s really interesting – thanks. Would I be correct in thinking that if the -80dB sine wave in the 16 bit recording had been biased by a tiny amount of DC, then it might not have shown up in the downsampled waveform at all?

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