A superficial reading of the specifications of a CD-ROM drive can generate a fearsome number. The now standard 52x read speed suggests a disc running at 24,000 rpm, with a linear velocity at its edge of over 150m/s (that is, nearly half the speed of sound!)
In this Australian HI-FI article I discuss the likelihood of this causing damage. If you don’t want to read it, the short answer is ‘not likely’. The reason is all to do with the difference between CLV and CAV.